Recently, the Moscow publishing house “Book World” published a book by the famous Latvian human rights activist, scientist and permanent author of the Russian People’s Line (RNL) Aleksandr Vladimirovich Gaponenko “European fascism: the problem of its identification and prevention”. We post a conversation with the author about his new work.
Aleksandr Vladimirovich, why did you decide to go into the analysis of the problems of a political movement like fascism, after all it was defeated more than 75 years ago during the Second World War and is currently legally prohibited in all countries of the world?
“Fascism, in fact, was defeated on 9 May 1945 and banned everywhere. For a long time, its awakening was hindered by the USSR, but after its collapse, fascism quickly acquired new forms and recovered around the world. Existing laws prevent the spread of external manifestations of fascism: symbols, texts, veneration of specific significant political figures and the movement itself. But the social relations characteristic of fascism were restored and in a number of European countries they became dominant. This explains the importance of the research undertaken “.
What do you mean by fascism?
“Thousands of serious research papers have been written on fascism, but no author gives an answer to the question of what fascism is. In the course of my work on the book, I came to the conclusion that fascism is a kind of way of building a nation, which is characterized by: the domination of the titular ethnic group over the non-titular ethnic groups; the appropriation of material resources created by non-titular ethnic groups by the titular ethnic group; the establishment of an ethnic hierarchy in society, where members of the titular ethnic group are at the top of the social ladder and members of non-titular ethnic groups are close to its base. “
So how does fascism differ from other types of nation building?
“Fascism is the domination and exploitation by one ethnic group of another ethnic group. I have conditionally defined these social relationships as a “brown” type of construction of such a form of ethnic community as a nation. We can talk about the existence of a “brown” project, since fascism is a man-made thing.
The bourgeoisie resorts to the “brown” project when it cannot develop within the framework of the liberal democratic political form, which I conditionally call the “white” project. The “white” project presupposes the political and social equality of all ethnic groups within a nation.
The “brown” project is opposed by the “red” project, which aims to limit private capital that seeks to self-grow in any way, including through ethnic exploitation. The “red” project does not allow one ethnic group to exploit others, it is international.
Finally, we can talk about the existence of a “black” project. Under it, the dominant ethnic group turns subordinate ethnic groups into slaves, goes to the physical destruction of those who do not bring surplus value. This nation-building project is commonly referred to as Nazism. “
What conclusions can be drawn about the development of the situation in Europe at the beginning of the mid-twentieth century when applying the methodological approach to understanding the nature of fascism that you proposed?
“The German, Austrian, Italian, Hungarian, Romanian and Bulgarian nations entered the path of capitalist development later than the English, French, Dutch and Belgian nations. The “young” nations attempted to redistribute the colonies of the “old” nations in their favor, but were defeated and punished in the early 20th century. This closed them the opportunity to develop within a “white” project.
The wage earners of the “young” European nations tried to implement the “red” project, but were defeated in the battles with the bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie began to develop the “brown” nation building project.
The “ brown ” project presupposed the preservation of private capital, but at the same time the establishment of state control over the personal income of capitalists and the accumulation of capital, the creation of new jobs and the establishment of a level guaranteed remuneration for all employees. The dominant ethnic group had to obtain material resources for the initial accumulation of capital and for its social development by robbing ethnic minorities and imposing restrictions on their economic and social activities. As a result, society has established an ethnic hierarchy with the titular ethnic group at the top and non-titular ethnic groups at the bottom of the social ladder.
The bearers of the “brown” project were mainly the fascist parties, which developed from below and in which not only the bourgeoisie took part, but also the peasants, wage earners and employees. At the head of the state was the head of the party: the Führer, the Duce “.
However, hasn’t fascism always been the product of fascist parties?
“Indeed, in the 1920s and 1930s in Germany and Italy, new fascist elites came to power that relied on mass fascist movements. They strongly brought the bourgeoisie and the bureaucracy to power.
In Austria, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria, the ruling bourgeoisie, with the support of the landed nobility, formed mass parties from above, which were completely under its control and performed the functions of repression and robbery of ethnic minorities. At the same time, the bourgeoisie relied on the existing state apparatus and conferred extraordinary powers on kings or dictator-regents. The bourgeoisie of the nations in question did not allow the fascist parties created from below to rise to power, and even persecuted their leadership as a dangerous competing political force. The social institutions of these “young” nations did not spread classic fascist ideas, but conservative ideas drawn from religious doctrines. There was not complete totalitarian control over all members of society in these countries. “
What other “added” value has emerged as a result of the research undertaken?
“It has become possible to make a division between fascism and Nazism. As a radical way out of the social crisis, the bourgeoisie proposed a “black” project. Its bearer, as noted, were the Nazi parties. The Nazis, unlike the Fascists, proposed not only to rob foreigners, but also to enslave them. Those who resisted or were unable to work had to be exterminated. This project required external aggression as the main source of material resources and slaves.
The “black” project began to be implemented in Germany and Austria after 1938; at the end of 1943 the Nazi order was established in the Italian Social Republic. At the end of 1944, Nazism was established in part of Romania (the regime of H. Sima) and part of Hungary (the regime of F. Szálasi). In all these cases, fascism turned into Nazism under the external pressure of the Germans.
Nazism already resulted in the establishment in society not of an ethnic but a racial hierarchy, that is, under it, the titular ethnic group received the highest racial status, and all other ethnic groups received racial status. lower. The lower race in this context are all the aliens who are targeted by the policy of slavery and extermination. Within the racial hierarchy, it is impossible for individuals to move from lower social positions to higher positions, even if they accept spiritual values and faithfully serve the dominant ethnic group. “
Do you think “brown” projects existed only in the countries you mentioned?
“No. The German Nazis put the local fascist elite at the head of some of the European nations conquered during the war. In the research literature, this elite is referred to by the term neutral – collaborators with occupants. However, the new ruling elites were fascist in their actions. These elites have transformed their nations into fascist nations. This type of fascism, it occurred to me, was called “induced”, that is, introduced into the nation by force from the outside.
Like the study of the facts of the construction of “young” nations such as the Croatian, Czech and Slovakian ones Shows, fascism, “induced” in them, served first of all the interests of the German Nazi nation. For this reason, the nations taken into consideration by “induced” fascism became “satellites” of the German Nazis in the implementation of the latter’s aggression by foreign policy.
The satellite nations supplied the Germans with their products, including military ones, sent their members to Germany for forced labor, fought against the opponents of the fascist regime in their country, supported the Germans with the armed forces, and sent volunteers to the Waffen SS troops. They participated in the extermination of Jews and gypsies questionable for the Germans.
In return, the satellite nations received certain advantages from the Germans: the right to preserve or even create their own statehood; the right to preserve one’s ethnic identity; the right to discriminate, rob, deport and destroy their own ethnic minorities. The Germans did not endow the satellite nations with colonies in the occupied territories. However, the status and the material benefits that came with it allowed the fascist elites in power to draw a portion of the masses to their side and form “induced” fascist nations out of them. At the same time, a portion of the masses in the nations under consideration remained under the influence of the liberal democratic and communist elites operating underground. “
What other conclusions do you draw in your book?
“Part of the European nations conquered during the war by the German Nazis were initially condemned to total or partial assimilation, to slavery, to partial or total destruction. State or even self-government were not preserved or granted to them. However, among these ethnic groups, the German Nazis found elites who agreed to serve them to obtain at least one social status in the established racial hierarchy, for a small income. These elites acted with fascist methods, but not for the good of their own ethnic group. On the contrary, they destroyed their liberal and communist elites, the intellectuals, they destroyed their social institutions, their culture. I designated these people as servile fascist elites, as the Germans assigned them only the role of military servants. In Soviet journalistic literature, these fascist elites are often referred to as Nazi “henchmen” or “accomplices”.
The Germans found “henchmen”, both among the conquered “young” nations, and among the members of the Soviet nation. They participated in the implementation of the “black” German project and contributed to putting their peoples at the service of the Germans. The Germans did not provide these elites with the opportunity to implement their “brown” projects. “
Thanks so much. And where can we buy your book?
“The electronic version of the book will be distributed free on the Internet and I will provide it to the RNL. I want as many readers as possible to know about it.
However, it is quite difficult to read nearly 800 pages of a rather complex scientific text online. Therefore, “Book Edition” will sell the print version in the Russian e-commerce network. For example, there is already my historical-adventure book for children ‘The Battle of Molodi’ ”.
Copyright © 2021. All rights reserved.